reitter-publ.bib

reitter-publ.bib


@MASTERSTHESIS{reitter2004hybrid,
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter},
  BOOKTITLE = {MSc thesis},
  SCHOOL = {University College Dublin},
  TITLE = {Hybrid Planning and Realization of Coherent Utterances for Multimodal Natural Language Dialogue Systems},
  ABSTRACT = {The output of multimodal human-computer interfaces is what this thesis is concerned with. Rather than hard-coding graphical  and spoken representations, methods are introduced that plan and realize coherent output, appropriate to the situation and the device. The generation system expects a mode- and language-independent representation, as it can be supplied by the dialogue management component of a dialogue system. The generator then assembles mode-specific rendering instructions simultaneously for each mode with the aid of a unification-based functional grammar. 
	
The approach proposed in this thesis abandons the canonical structure of pipelined planning and realization in natural language generation, in favor of hard constraints formulated in a grammar, and soft constraints that allow for the gradual adaptivity of the output. The grammar is constructed to ensure the coherence of output in different modalities, whose output is generated in a synchronized fashion rather than by separate, mode-specific generators. The soft constraints follow some of the Gricean maxims by incorporating two counteracting communicative goals: efficacy and efficiency. A fitness function encoding these goals takes into account situation- and user-specific factors, such as distractions in a single mode or the user's sensory impairments. The function leads to the selection of an appropriate output from the variety of potential outputs generated by the grammar. It is evaluated in a study with human subjects. 

The thesis presents a unification based, hybrid grammar formalism which can combine pre-fabricated phrases and linguistically motivated grammar fragments, and an associated algorithm which integrates the formulation of grammars that lead to cross-modally coherent output. Methods are compared to efficiently implement a control strategy, combining hard and soft constraints as a constraint optimization problem. 

The cross-modal coherence implemented by the grammar formalism is motivated by known phenomena, such as cross-modal priming, or alignment between interlocutors. To optimize discourse coherence, central ideas of Centering Theory are implemented using the grammar formalism. 

Finally, novel methods and a ready-to-use implementation are introduced which allow user interface developers to inspect, maintain and extend grammars. The formalism and generation implementation is demonstrated with a grammar for a mobile, multimodal application, the Virtual Personal Assistant. },
  YEAR = {submitted}
}


@INPROCEEDINGS{reitter04mug,
  ABSTRACT = {When grammar-based techniques for natural language generation (and analysis alike) find their way into collaborative projects or actual application, big grammars tend to become hard to extend and debug. The MUG system represents a new tool set with a graphical debugging environment for functional unification grammars, which is designed to help grammar developers inspect the results of their work. The particular formalism supported is Multimodal Functional Unification Grammar (MUG, [4]), which is similar to Functional Unification Grammars (FUG: [2], [1]), but supports several coordinated modes, such as voice prompts or structural and/or language-based screen displays. For each input description, the grammar can generate a range of coherent realization variants, which are ranked by a scoring function in order to optimize the output towards situational and device-related factors. },
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proc. Third International Conference on Natural Language Generation 2nd Volume. ITRI Technical Report.},
  LOCATION = {Brockenhurst, U.K.},
  TITLE = {A Development Environment for Multimodal Functional Unification Generation Grammars},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/reitter2004inlg.pdf},
  YEAR = {2004}
}


@INPROCEEDINGS{panttaja04eval,
  ABSTRACT = {Adaptable multimodal systems are difficult to test. We present 
a methodology for evaluating parallel multimodal output which is generated in response to a specific set of user, device and situation constraints.  Our method involves ranking of many potential output variants using a fitness function, and selecting well-differentiated variants for user testing. 
We focus on the generation of multiple variants of graphical user interfaces for small-screen devices and natural language voice output, within a system we term UI on the Fly.},
  AUTHOR = {Erin Panttaja and David Reitter and Fred Cummins},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of the DUMAS Workshop on Robust and Adaptive Information Processing for Mobile Speech Interfaces},
  LOCATION = {Geneva, Switzerland},
  TITLE = {The Evaluation of Adaptable Multimodal System Outputs},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/panttaja-etal_evaluation_2004.pdf},
  YEAR = {2004}
}


@INPROCEEDINGS{reitter04ui,
  ABSTRACT = {UI on the Fly is a system that dynamically presents coordinated multimodal content through natural language and a small-screen graphical user interface. It adapts to the user's preferences and situation. Multimodal Functional Unification Grammar (MUG) is a unification-based formalism that uses rules to generate content that is coordinated across several communication modes. Faithful variants are scored with a heuristic function.},
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter and Erin Panttaja and Fred Cummins},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of Human Language Technology conference 2004 / North American chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (HLT/NAACL-04)},
  LOCATION = {Boston},
  TITLE = {{UI} on the Fly: Generating a Multimodal User Interface},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/reitter-etal_uifly_2004.pdf},
  YEAR = {2004}
}


@MASTERSTHESIS{reitter2003rhetorical,
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter},
  BOOKTITLE = {Diplomarbeit},
  SCHOOL = {University of Potsdam},
  TEXT = {Best thesis award 2001/2002 at the GLDV'03 spring conference.},
  TITLE = {Rhetorical Analysis with Rich-Feature Support Vector Models},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/reitter_rstsvm-thesis_2003.pdf},
  YEAR = {2003}
}


@INPROCEEDINGS{reitter2003urml,
  ABSTRACT = {While quite a few linguistic corpora with syntactic annotations are available today, resources are scarce on the level of discourse annotation. A flexible, extendible annotation format speeds up development. We therefore propose an XML format for annotating rhetorical structure trees. In  human and automatic analysis, rhetorical structure is often difficult and assigned incrementally. Thus, the format allows for   underspecification. The paper discusses the various design decisions involved, illustrates the format with an example, and sketches some applications.  },
  ADDRESS = {Budapest},
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter and Manfred Stede},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Linguistically Interpreted Corpora (LINC-03) (at EACL 2003)},
  LOCATION = {Budapest},
  TITLE = {Step by step: underspecified markup in incremental rhetorical analysis},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/reitter-stede_urml_2003.pdf},
  YEAR = {2003}
}


@ARTICLE{reitter03analysis,
  ABSTRACT = {Most text displays an internal coherence structure, which can be analyzed as a tree structure of relations that hold between short segments of text. We present a machine-learning governed approach to such an analysis in the framework of Rhetorical Structure Theory. Our rhetorical analyzer observes a variety of textual properties, such as cue phrases, part-of-speech information, rhetorical context and lexical chaining. A two-stage parsing algorithm uses local and global optimization to find an analysis. Decisions during parsing are driven by an ensemble of support vector classifiers. This training method allows for a non-linear separation of samples with many relevant features. We define a chain of annotation tools that profits from a new underspecified representation of rhetorical structure. Classifiers are trained on a newly introduced German language corpus, as well as on a large English one. We present evaluation data for the recognition of rhetorical relations. },
  ADDRESS = {St. Augustin, Germany: Gardez},
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter},
  JOURNAL = {LDV-Forum, GLDV-Journal for Computational Linguistics and Language Technology},
  NUMBER = {1/2},
  PAGES = {38-52},
  TITLE = {Simple Signals for Complex Rhetorics: On rhetorical analysis with rich-feature support vector models},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/reitter_complex-rst_2003.pdf},
  VOLUME = {18},
  YEAR = {2003}
}


@INPROCEEDINGS{reitter2002guessing,
  ABSTRACT = {I present a statistical-based approach to the part-of-speech guessing problem. I see assigning a part-of-speech, such as Adjective or Noun , as a classification problem. My guessing framework, which relies on automated learning of a language model, is described in detail. The rich feature analysis presented is suitable for linguistic data, such as the ones observed in German. I use a large margin classifier learning algorithm to select relevant features and learn appropriate labelling. The system is evaluated using a German corpus. },
  ADDRESS = {Potsdam, Germany},
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of the 12th Student Conference on Computational Linguistics (TaCoS-2002)},
  TITLE = {Statistical Part-of-Speech Guessing for {G}erman: Support Vector Classifiers versus Voting},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/reitter_posguessing_2002.pdf},
  YEAR = {2002}
}


@PROCEEDINGS{tacos2002proceedings,
  ADDRESS = {Potsdam, Germany},
  EDITOR = {David Reitter},
  PUBLISHER = {University of Potsdam},
  TITLE = {Proceedings of the 12th {S}tudent {C}onference on {C}omputational {L}inguistics ({TaCoS} 2002)},
  YEAR = {2002}
}


@INPROCEEDINGS{berger2002case,
  ABSTRACT = {We describe our ongoing work on an application of XML/XSL technology   to a dictionary, from whose source representation various views for   the human reader as well as for automatic text generation and   understanding are derived. Our case study is a dictionary of   discourse markers, the words (often, but not always, conjunctions)   that signal the presence of a disocurse relation between adjacent spans of text. },
  ADDRESS = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  AUTHOR = {Daniela Berger and David Reitter and Manfred Stede},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on NLP and XML (NLPXMP-2002), (at COLING 2002)},
  TITLE = {X{M}{L}/{X}{S}{L} in the Dictionary: The Case of Discourse Markers},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/bergeretal_xmldiscmarkers_2002.pdf},
  YEAR = {2002}
}


@TECHMANUAL{reitter02latex,
  ABSTRACT = {Drawing rhetorical analyses is no fun when you need to change and update diagrams as you refine your work, or, more importantly, if a lot of analyses are to be drawn. Voila, there we go: This package enables us to typeset beautiful diagrams with no hassle. It is oriented towards the style of the diagrams shown in Mann{\&}Thompson's Rhetorical Structure Theory and subsequent works. This package works perfectly with (LaTeX) and pdfLaTeX and does not require any special postscript capabilities in the output side. },
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/} as of 02/2003},
  TITLE = {Rhetorical theory in {L}a{T}e{X} with the `rst' package. {T}echnical Manual},
  URL = {http://www.david-reitter.com/compling/papers/reitter_rstpackage_2002.pdf},
  YEAR = {2002}
}


@INPROCEEDINGS{reitter-hybrid,
  ABSTRACT = { CyMON-NLU can inform, chat and gather user information using an advanced natural language understanding engine. It combines statistical morphosyntactic disambiguation methods (trigram tagging), a stemming algorithm and a robust parser for a large semantic grammar implemented in an XML formalism. The scalable CyMON-NLU engine is implemented in C++ and provides interfaces to the agent-based CRM platform CyMON. Further features include automatic language detection and dialog tracking using a semantic network interface. A development kit enables language engineers to easily create semantic grammars for the specific domain.},
  AUTHOR = {David Reitter and Stefan Covaci and Florin Oltean and Catalin Bacanu and Traian Serbanuta},
  BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of the 11th Student Conference on Computational Linguistics (TaCoS)},
  LOCATION = {Heidelberg, Germany},
  TITLE = {Hybrid Natural Language Processing in a Customer-Care Environment},
  YEAR = {2001}
}